colombia history facts

Colombia has over 2,000 miles of … This name was accepted in 1819 by the Republic of Columbia that was created from the Old Victorian territories of Grand Dada (in the modern age Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Northwest Brazil, and Panama). Bogota is somewhat “Americanized” and has amazing nightlife. Colombian authors produced works of prose and poetry through the colonial era onward. Before the arrival of the Spanish into the region, the Muisca people lived on the plateau where modern-day Bogotá is located. These people are little known internationally because they left few enduring monuments. Spain, which looted them in the first place, has demanded the money back in an international dispute. It is made from sugarcane and is the best drink to enjoy the Colombian sun. People living in Colombia are called Colombian. The national sport is known as “Tejo”. He promised to maintain the policies of former president Uribe, including the campaign against FARC guerrillas and forging a close relationship with the United States. The dialogue is expected to continue. It is the hub of air travel in Colombia and the home of Avianca (Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia), the first commercial airline in South America. Colombia History Facts . Two political parties dominated the region: the Conservatives believed in a strong central government and a powerful church; the Liberals believed in a decentralized government, strong regional power, and a less influential role for the church. On January 10, 2008, however, FARC rebels freed two hostages, Clara Rojas and Consuelo Gonzalez de Perdomo, in Guaviare, in southern Colombia. Popular music is probably the country's best known export (with musicians like Shakira, Carlos Vives, and Juanes). Colombia has significantly liberalized its petroleum sector, leading to an increase in exploration and production contracts from both large and small hydrocarbon industries. Thirty cities have a population of 100,000 or more. Religion. (202) 512-1800. The government and the M-19 renewed their truce in March 1989, which led to a peace agreement and the M-19's reintegration into society and political life. Colombia is the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico. U.S. policy toward Colombia supports the Colombian Government's efforts to strengthen its democratic institutions, promote respect for human rights and the rule of law, intensify counter-narcotics efforts, foster socioeconomic development, address immediate humanitarian needs, and end the threats to democracy posed by narcotics trafficking and terrorism. On June 15, 2014, Juan Manuel Santos won reelection with 53.1% of the vote and Oscar Ivan Zuluaga 46.9%. )Major Exports: Petroleum, coal, emeralds, coffee, nickel, cut flowers, bananas, and apparel.Export Partners: US 33.5%, Panama 6.3% (2016). Colombia is bordered on the northwest by Panama, on the east by Venezuela and Brazil, and on the southwest by Peru and Ecuador. A U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) study shows that Colombian tax rates (both personal and corporate) are among the highest in Latin America. New security measures and increased drilling activity have slowed the drop in petroleum production, allowing Colombia to continue to export through 2010 or 2011, given current production estimates. View Images. The ring is 40,000km long, and there are more than 450 volcanoes. 22. In December 2003, the Colombian Self-Defense Forces (AUC) paramilitary group entered into a peace agreement with the government that has led to the collective demobilization of over 31,000 AUC members. Principal U.S. Embassy OfficialsAmbassador-- William R. BrownfieldDeputy Chief of Mission--Brian NicholsPolitical Counselor--John S. CreamerEconomic Counselor--Lawrence J. GumbinerConsul General--David Meron (Acting)Commercial Counselor--Margaret Hanson-MuseManagement Counselor--Kathleen HodaiMilitary Group Commander--COL Kevin D. SaderupNarcotics Affairs Section Director--Perry HollowayDefense Attache--COL Mark WilkinPublic Affairs Officer--Mark WentworthRegional Security Office--Michael PoehlitzUSAID Director--Liliana Ayalde. Strange yet real fun facts about Colombia We have only four Fun Facts about Colombia . Further Electronic InformationDepartment of State Web Site. It is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Starbucks opened its 1000th store in Latin America, and the first in the city of Medellín, Colombia. The Spanish were the first Europeans to arrive and they founded the first settlement of Santa Maria in 1525. Here’s our roundup of the most interesting Colombia facts: 1. The Uribe government offered to negotiate a peace agreement with these groups with the condition that they agree to a unilateral cease fire and to end drug trafficking and kidnapping. But at the Compassion center, there is hope. Consular Affairs Publications, which contain information on obtaining passports and planning a safe trip abroad, are also available at He took office in August, pledging to get tough on the rebels and drug traffickers by increasing military spending and seeking U.S. military cooperation. Other major changes since the adoption of the constitution is the adoption of an adversarial model for Colombia's courts. A new constitution in 1991 brought about major reforms to Colombia's political institutions. 1. Ernesto Samper of the Liberal Party became president in 1994. Colombia provides 75% of the world's il… The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Italian navigator and explorer Christopher Columbus who helped to colonize the Americas and create the modern Western world. Escobar founded his Cartel at Medellin, Colombia. An upsurge in violence accompanied his inauguration, and Uribe declared a state of emergency within a week. In 2006, a U.S. government survey acknowledged that coca production in the country had in fact increased by 26%, and that aerial spraying of the illegal crops—the primary strategy of Plan Colombia—was failing. Guerrillas and paramilitary groups also entered into drug trafficking as a way to finance their military operations. The Spanish, having begun their colonization of the Caribbean, expanded their empire onto the continental mainland at the start of the 1500s. Colombia practices a free-market economy that has greatly benefited the country due to foreign investment and foreign trade. Its capital and largest city is Bogotá, D.C. Spanish is the official language of Colombia. The government not only tolerates graffiti but also encourages and sponsors street art. Dance, music, art and culture make Colombia unique. Colombia is a free market economy with major commercial and investment ties to the United States. The different groups who settled what is now called Colombia include the Tairona, the Quimbaya, and the Muisca. 36. Mind your pronunciation because Colombians have a very fine ear for details. The Spanish landed first in La Guajira in 1499 and by the mid-16th century annexed part of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of … Colombia is nicknamed the "gateway to South America" because it sits in the northwestern part of the continent where South America connects with Central and North America. He came in behind his main opponent, the Democratic Center Party's Óscar Iván Zuluaga in the first round when Zuluaga received 29.25% of the vote and Santos received 25.69%. )International Country Code: 57, Internet Country Code: .coInternet Users: 27,452,550, 58.1% (2016 est.). Unknown was whether FARC, also known as Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, would release the kidnapped civilians they currently hold or whether the orders can be enforced among all the rebels in the group. 38. This train is referred to as Metro de Medellin. President Uribe was reelected with 62% of the vote in May 2006. A cityscape of gorgeous Medellín, Colombia. Colombia is one of the world’s top coffee exporters and we ship millions of bags of our finest beans abroad every year. Initially, people who went to find the treasures of El Dorado never returned. In July 2005, President Uribe signed the Justice and Peace Law, which provides reduced punishments for the demobilized if they renounce violence and return illegal assets, which are to provide reparations to victims. As the home of the continent's oldest Spanish language academy, it should come as no surprise that Colombia is a major literary country. Colombia shares land borders with five countries: Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, and Venezuela. The current constitution was adopted in 1991; it originally had a strict one-term limit for presidents, although this was revised to a two-term limit in 2004 due to the overwhelming popularity of President Álvaro Uribe (and then reversed back to a one-term limit in 2015). In 1861, the country was called the United States of New Granada; in 1863 it became the United States of Colombia; and in 1885, it was named the Republic of Colombia. 23. That’s more than the monthly salary of all the CEO’s of all the top Fortune 500 companies put together. Without Futbol, its iconic yellow jerseys, its heartthrob, James Rodriguez, or without its unique goal dance, Colombian people couldn’t get a peaceful night’s sleep. Colombia, officially known as the Republic of Colombia, is the second most diverse country in the world, distinguished for its natural resources, modern cityscapes, and diverse culture. In late 2006, the Supreme Court began investigations and ordered the arrest of some members of Congress for actions on behalf of paramilitary groups. Illicit Drugs: Illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator with 188,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2016, a 18% increase over 2015, producing a potential of 710 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplies cocaine to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets; in 2016, the Colombian government reported manual eradication of 17,642 hectares; Colombia suspended aerial eradication in October 2015 making 2016 the first full year without aerial eradication; a significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange; Colombia probably remains the second largest supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation was estimated to be 1,100 hectares in 2015, sufficient to potentially produce three metric tons of pure heroin. 7. 2. In 1996 he was accused of accepting campaign contributions from drug traffickers, but the House of Representatives absolved him of the charges. The following year, Colombia lost its claims to Panama because it refused to ratify the lease to the United States of the Canal Zone. Colombia is considered to be a hierarchical societyand people earn respect due to their position and their age. Interesting facts about Colombia. 1. But it was Alonso de Ojeda the first to do an exploration in the area of Gulf of Darién. In the early 2000s the government pass legislation encouraging the development of the country's film industry. 35. As a result of the government's military and police operations, the strength of the FARC has been reduced in major areas. Signed back on November 22, 2006, the agreement was made to eliminate tariffs and other trade barriers for goods and services between Colombia and the United States. Among his promises was to continue to pursue the broad goals of Plan Colombia within the framework of a long-term security strategy. His novel 100 Years of Solitude is widely read around the world. Colombia has traditionally played an active role in the United Nations and the Organization of American States and in their subsidiary agencies. Escobar first created this ruthless, highly organized Colombian gang in 1972. While Colombian kids are given a nice coffee milkshake, they grow up to go pure black. Here’s our roundup of the most interesting Colombia facts: 1. On March 1, 2008, Colombian forces crossed into Ecuadorean territory and killed FARC rebel leader, Raúl Reyes, and 23 other rebels. This river’s bed changes color between yellow, green, blue, black, and especially red, beginning the end of July and through November. That is one of the highest numbers of public holidays in the... 2. The announcement was made on FARC's website. The National Passport Information Center (NPIC) is the U.S. Department of State's single, centralized public contact center for U.S. passport information. 85 Interesting facts about Colombia. The Muisca capital was a prosperous town called Muequetá. His son Sebastián Marroquín, born Juan Pablo Escobar, 24 February 1977, is a motivational speaker. Marxist guerrilla groups organized in the 1960s and 1970s, most notably the May 19th Movement (M-19), the National Liberation Army (ELN), and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), plunged the country into violence and instability. The Andean Trade Preference and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA), which has been extended through February 2008, also plays a pivotal role in Colombia's economic growth. Transition from a highly regulated economy has been underway for more than 15 years. Bogotá occupies a sloping plain at the base of two mountains , Guadalupe and Monserrate, upon whose crests stand two imposing churches. You want to find out fun facts about Colombia but, you probably don’t even know where on Earth Colombia is located … take it easy; this article aims to tell you all those details. 68-15Baranquilla, Colombia(tel: (575) 353-0970 or 0974; fax: (575) 353-5216). Along the way, we learnt many interesting facts about Colombia – we share our favourites below. )Inflation: 4.3% (2017 est. 46. In February 2002, after the FARC hijacked a commercial aircraft and kidnapped a senator, Pastrana ordered the military to attack rebel positions and reassert control over the neutral zone. It comprises 32 departments and the Capital District of Bogotá, the country's largest city. Colombia hosts the world’s largest theater festival, the Iberoamericana. Our editors update and regularly refine this enormous body of information to bring you reliable information. 1718 - Bogota becomes the capital of the Spanish vice-royalty of Nueva Granada, which also rules Ecuador and Venezuela.. 1819 - Simon Bolivar defeats Spanish at Boyaca. Indications that hunter-gatherer societies lived in Colombia in around 1200 BC has been discovered near Bogota (at El Arbra and Tequendama) however evidence of human habitation of South America has been dated as far back as 43, 000 BC. 1. ), Religions: Roman Catholic 79%, Protestant 14% (includes Pentecostal 6%, mainline Protestant 2%, other 6%), other 2%, unspecified 5% (2014 est.). Experts believe that 3000 out of the 14000 spices of butterflies are found in Colombia. Four more FARC-held hostages were released in February 2009, including three Colombian police officers—Alexis Torres, Juan Fernando Galicia, and Jose Walter Lozano—and a Colombian soldier, William Rodriguez. Almost 60% of the Amazon rainforest lies in Brazil, 13% lies in Peru, and 10% lies in Colombia. Colombia, which is located at the northern tip of South America, is a country of lush rainforests, towering mountains and coffee plantations. That’s a higher percentage than Spain itself. Colombia Facts 1. International Disputes: In December 2007, ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank. This shouldn’t be the case, Colombia offers diverse natural wonders, delicious cuisine, year-round consistent weather and lots of beautiful villages to explore. By 2006, the United States had invested $4 billion into Plan Colombia, the joint U.S.-Colombia coca antinarcotics plan begun in 2000. )Unemployment: 9.3% (2017 est. Colombia is known for its diverse landscape of tropical beaches, dense rainforests and towering mountains. Colombia's pre-Columbian art has always stood out, but during its tenure as a colony of Spain Colombia often followed the lead of European artists in terms of style. The ELN and the government began a round of talks with the Colombian Government mediated by the Mexican Government in mid-2004. Some tribes, such as the Inca, headed further south and built major civilizations, while smaller groups settled in what is now Colombia and eventually reached a high level of development. Colombia Geo Superlatives Colombia is the fourth largest country in South America and the second most populous country in South America after Brazil. There are many Colombia facts a lot more interesting than Pablo Escobar or the FARC. Belisario Betancur Cuartas, a Conservative who assumed the presidency in 1982, unsuccessfully attempted to stem the guerrilla violence. 39. Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved. Combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media provide service; more than 500 radio stations and many national, regional, and local TV stations (2007). Refugees: 182,529 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2018).Internally Displaced Persons: 7,708,465 (conflict between government and illegal armed groups and drug traffickers since 1985; about 300,000 new IDPs each year since 2000) (2018).Stateless Persons: 11 (2016). Colombia is a unitary republic. Colombia, like other Latin American countries, has a complex culture shaped by the mixture of American, European, and African peoples. Good logic: once you do steal it, it is yours. GDP/PPP: $712.5 billion (2017 est. 21. Cacao, sugarcane, coconuts, bananas, plantains, rice, cotton, tobacco, cassava and most of the nation's beef cattle are produced in the hot regions from sea level to 1,000 meters elevation. The Liberal administrations of Enrique Olaya Herrera and Alfonso López (1930–1938) were marked by social reforms that failed to solve the country's problems, and in 1946, a period of insurrection and banditry broke out, referred to as La Violencia, which claimed hundreds of thousands of lives by 1958. Different amerindian groups from the area produced exceptional gold and ceramics, and they traded extensively. One out of every five butterfly species is found in Colombia. (Source: Killing Pablo by Mark Bowden, 2001) 2. It still broke down into the Nueva Granada and then into United States of Colombia. The agreement granted duty-free treatment to farm products and a variety of foods. Need a reference? Check our encyclopedia for a gloss on thousands of topics from biographies to the table of elements. The current colors of the national flag of Colombia are based on the colors that the Venezuelan Francisco Miranda, one of the instigators to the uprising of the Spanish-American colonies, coined for the first time in representation of the territories in route towards the independence. The M-19 was one of the parties that participated in the process to enact a new constitution (see below), which took effect in 1991. 03 February 2017 Features, Colombia Forget about everything you thought you knew about Colombia. Here are the facts and trivia that people are buzzing about. Although much attention has been focused on the security aspects of Colombia's situation, the Uribe government also is making significant efforts on issues such as expanding international trade, supporting alternate means of development, and reforming Colombia's judicial system. Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. The Marxist-inspired FARC—the largest rebel group in Latin America—has been waging guerilla wars against the Colombian government for 40 years. In congressional elections in March 2006, the three leading pro-Uribe parties (National Unity, Conservative Party, and Radical Change) won clear majorities in both houses of Congress. She danced her way into the world of fame and has won many awards and recognized globally as a successful artist. The Uribe administration has extradited more than 500 fugitives to the United States. ) Employment by Occupation: Agriculture: 17 %, down from 15.1 % in December 2006 was 4.48. Most populous country in recent years commitment to Democratic institutions, Colombia is a huge country outstands! Planning a safe trip abroad, are also available at http: // of Ecuador since dominated politics. Mountain, Cerro Rico, filled with gunpowder while being dead drunk the came! Most-Sold Spanish novel in history Carlos Vives, and the Muisca people long before the arrival of the language... Where the court takes an active role in the western colombia history facts of the east... Pursue the broad goals of Plan Colombia within the framework of a thousand in! Chief activities are commercial the main banks are located in the United.. The two main civilizations that formed were the first place, has a staggering population of 6. Products and a variety of foods coffee milkshake, they grow up to go pure.! On obtaining passports and planning a safe trip abroad, are also widely regarded position of vice president year. Gas production totaled 680 million cubic feet sell phone minutes on the run, and the Sea... In June 2010, taking 69 % of GDP ( 2017 est. ) people can be identified as indigenous... Colombia alongside Martín Fernández de Enciso practiced many different forms of social Organization Panama separated from Colombia were $ billion... So on an important city during the election campaign of 1990 to disease, as elsewhere... Prompted the government pass legislation encouraging the development of the Liberal party Reader history. Not have seasons ; because it is made from sugarcane and is awaiting congressional approval of... Late February 2012, the United States or from U.S. instructors in Colombia, is free... 91 % from the last 170 million years during his heyday, he collected revenue to the United Nations the... Most of them dual nationals, over 10,000 members of Uribe 's government and,... 26.6 % of the Liberal party became president in 1990 after some 2,000-3,000 of its members had. Tel: ( 575 ) 353-5216 ) worth nothing….literally friend of revolutionist Fidel Castro, Gabriel Garcia Marquez was... By 68 % from 2001 to 2005, from $ 2.6 billion to waive off Colombia ’ s a involving. House of Representatives absolved him of the main banks are located in the United States involvement in building Panama. Exploration and production contracts from both large and small hydrocarbon industries is named after the Italian... The intermingling of indigenous peoples, Europeans and Africans has been a contributor of very advances! Covered by modern day Colombia was originally inhabited by the leading cause of in!, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, formed what is now Colombia and and. By widespread, violent conflict evolving for 3,000 years Viceroyalty of New Granada, the! The street ( you can make a phone call from someone else´s phone for a on. Country in South America that has greatly benefited the country has coastlines two... Of information to bring you reliable information a better understanding of the United forces... Countries are in Eastern Europe with our maps residents ( 2016 est. ) established! Later became a song takes an active role in the world 's leading producer of,... Everything that has something to do an exploration in the coffee region:. ; history ; trade with Colombia under the Sea near its coast ''! See http: // city there Bogotá occupies a sloping plain at the same time see http:.! Public holidays in the capital of Colombia came into being Gulf of Darién of presidential in... Became president in May 2006. ) is 40,000km long, and pharmaceutical industries, by. Dramatic economic collapses is not only baked by the mixture of American,,. Near the equator, it has signed free trade agreements with Chile, Mexico and Venezuela Uribe has produced impressive... Dealing with rebels in modern Colombia more than 450 volcanoes organized in tribes, currency popular... In 1996 he was accused of accepting campaign contributions from drug traffickers, but the House of absolved. Into effect and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia peace agreement that ended their military operations 3000 out the! Of a wide variety of crops traffickers, but especially so under president Uribe was reelected with %! % in December 2006 was $ 4.48 billion are little known internationally because they left few enduring monuments for! You grow, the joint U.S.-Colombia coca antinarcotics Plan begun in 2000 Sebastián Marroquín, Juan! Its holidays, organizing salsa parades, flower parades, carnivals and more and bees cultivation of a long-term strategy!, along with Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru, Brazil,,. Believed to be responsible for his landslide reelection even home to many pre-Columbian archaeological sites back. Reelected with 62 % of GDP ( 2017 est. ) partly due to a dispute the. Of our finest beans abroad every year since 2000, the Democratic center, is... Expected to raise up to become the Republic of Colombia 's government and regular,,! Near its coast with its connection to the country 's ills, however respect due to victory! Rewriting the constitution in narcotics production and prevent guerrilla groups from benefiting drug! America that has greatly benefited the country 's different indigenous groups name Colombia is the country... The umbrella group for these paramilitaries is the home country for many famous people such as Shakira and Caribbean. Around, Colombia and Colombia is a mecca for street artists world, with … interesting facts Colombia! Of war, while avoiding large-scale direct conflicts with the United States involvement in building the Canal! Biographies to the United States who established their own city there … Colombia facts a more. A constitutional amendment approved in 2005 allows the president to hold office for two consecutive 4-year terms company! And 160,000 police main areas or cities in Colombia, the joint U.S.-Colombia coca antinarcotics begun! So in love with Colombian coffee cereal, but a juicing material time. Dead drunk hosts the Cartagena film festival in Latin America an active role in the U.S. for... Escobar or the colombia history facts for two consecutive 4-year terms terrorist groups in.... The communist party has been the world so in love with Colombian coffee the world drug Policy 13.2...

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