congo before imperialism

Kongo provided the Portuguese with support in their war against the Kingdom of Ndongo, located in the interior east of Luanda, when Portugal went to war with it in 1579. The king would oversee all judicial, military, and financial issues. Despite his cruel tendencies, Stanley’s exploration of the Congo made him the foremost expert on the country. 1482 Portuguese explorers arrive at the mouth of the Congo River establishing the first contact between the Kongo kingdom and Europe. The Bemba people under Chitimukulu migrated from the Lunda Kingdom to Northern Zambia. The conditions in the Belgian Congo before Imperialism were undocumented because there was no government rule in the area. Leopold decided to increase the number of slave laborers in the Congo and encouraged his soldiers to use any methods necessary to collect the largest quantity of rubber. The situation only worsened with the discovery of rubber in the Congo, which quickly overshadowed the ivory industry. The imperialism of the Congo was mostly economic. Since he controlled the Congo completely independently of the Belgian government, Leopold decided to give the Belgian government the Congo in an attempt to stop the negative press coverage. Claiming that Belgian control of the Congo was a humanitarian effort that would open up new economies, Leopold convinced European and U.S. leaders to support his efforts. The King, not the Belgian government, effectively owned and controlled the Congo. After imperialism. The villages were often governed by lesser relatives of the King who were responsible to him. [7], The Stairs Expedition sent by Leopold under the flag of his Congo Free State was the winner of this scramble for Katanga when it killed Msiri (putting his head on a pole as a 'lesson' to his people), and installed a successor who would sign Katanga over to Leopold. The Democratic Republic of the Congo was first imperialized by King Leopold II of Belgium, in 1885. During the mid 1800’s, Europe was at the height of its Industrial Revolution. So wealthy, in fact, that cities and centralized government based on a chieftain system developed. King Leopold, the king of Belgium at the time, asked Stanley to convince local leaders in the Congo to sign their land into Belgian control. Their propagation was accelerated by the adoption of pastoralism and of Iron Age technology. Most of Congo landscape was jungle and it was occupied by the Luba empire, the Lunda empre, and the Kongo empire. Imperialisms in Congo Imperialism in Congo The concept of Renewed Imperialism was prominent during the nineteen century. These trade goods would also form, in addition to slaves, the backbone of the Kongo's trade with Europeans (primarily the Portuguese), upon their arrival. It lasts for some 500 years. Since Britain declined interest in making the Congo a colony, Stanley agreed to work secretly and for a large paycheck for Leopold for five years to help him turn the Congo into a colony (Pakenham 60). Forced rubber production no longer had official support, so the business moved underground. Granted to King Leopold II of Belgium, the Congo was a “personal” concession for the King, rather than a colony. This high amount of rainfall makes it difficult to sustain agriculture, and subsequently a large population because the soil is simply too watered-down and prone to periodic floods (which can ruin crops, of course) to produce large quantities of food. One such nation, Belgium, began to explore Africa, which was fabled to contain vast, untapped supplies of gold, ivory, and other important resources. From the 15th to the 17th century several important state systems evolved in the southern savanna region. Also due mainly to its location, even after Belgium officially established the Congo Free State in 1885, the Kuba were able to sustain their federation, which comprised some 100,000 square kilometers and had a population of approximately 150,000 inhabitants. It completely changed the religious dynamic of the natives. While he completely controlled production in the Congo, Leopold could not silence dissent forever. Eventually, after colonial officials were able to enforce their authority upon the Kuba near the end of the 19th century, the entire region became increasingly unstable. Before imperialism. The treaties gave King Leopold II of Belgium personal control over the land. European imperialism in Africa was partly due to rivalries between the different European countries involved, with Britain, Germany and France the dominant powers. This period saw many European nations invade Africa and scrambled for nations that they were able to colonize. After imperialism. However, when Belgium began imperializing and colonizing the Congo, King Leopold II became dictator of the country. He forced almost all of the population into labor work. Since many of the natural resources in Europe were either under other nations’ control or completely used up, many nations looked to conquer more territory to gain an advantage in the fight for economic superiority. The dominant political force of the Congo region prior to and during the initial arrival of Europeans was the Kingdom of Kongo. After imperialism. The city is now known by the same name as the capital of an Angolan province, but was for a time renamed by the Manikongo to 'São Salvador' in an effort to adopt Portuguese culture. The Manikongo personally appointed a kind of governor for each of the six provinces to oversee each from his capital, Mbanza-Kongo. While they slowly granted Africans increased control in their government, the Congo would never truly become free of European control. The Commission wrote a testimony of their experience in the Congo and destroyed the idea of Leopold being a benevolent caretaker. 1300s The Kongo empire, a highly structured and developed state, rules over a region that today covers parts of south-western Congo, northern Angola and a slice of the Republic of Congo. The New Imperialism European countries controlled only small part of Africa in 1880; but by 1914 only Ethiopia, Liberia remained independent. Rising population soon made intricate local, regional and foreign commercial nets possible, forming networks that traded mostly in salt, iron and copper. Before imperialism. It was later taken over by the Belgian government in 1908. [3] It is now believed to be more than 20,000 years old. The Spanish ruled small parts of Morocco and coastal areas along the Atlantic Ocean. [4][5], The Bantu expansion is thought to have reached modern day DRC as well as Northern Angola and Zambia possibly as early as 500 BC, and then gradually started to expand southward.[6]. Stearns, Jason (2011): Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa. Comment. In recent weeks the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly known as Zaire, and before that the Belgian Congo, has been in the news: A brutal civil war, an horrendous AIDS epidemic, the assassination of its dictator, Laurent Kabila, and now a new President, Kabila's son Joseph, who is in Washington for talks with the Bush Administration. Before imperialism came to the Congo, it was a state of slave raids, unused natural resources, and Christianity. This was mainly due to his African blood and Sheppard was able to live amongst the Kuba for four months. Initially called the Congo Free State, the colony remained a personal possession of King Leopold II from 1885 until 1908 when it was taken over by … Divisions were created that had never existed before. Before imperialism. This culture, known as the Upemba, would eventually evolve into the more significant Luba Empire, as well as the Kingdom of Lunda. The period featured an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions. The Luba Kingdom arose out of the Upemba culture and was founded by King Kongolo around 1585. Brooks, A.S. and Smith, C.C. The rivers are and were tremendously important to regional trade and provide a vast natural network for such activities, in addition to providing a source of food and water (which is needless to say, abundant) to the population. The most important harbor was Mpinda (modern Soyo). The most important were the Kongo kingdom in the west and the Luba-Lunda states in the east. Before Europe set its sights on Africa, the Congo was an independent nation relatively untouched by imperialism. The empire became a confederation of a number of kingdoms or chieftainships which enjoyed a degree of local autonomy (as long as tributes were paid), with Mwata Yamvo as paramount ruler, and a ruling council (following the Luba model) to assist with administration. Belgian imperialism: the colonisation of the Congo. The Portuguese held Angola and Mozambiq… Although he no longer had control over the Congo, Leopold had made a fortune by exploiting its people and natural resources. The Congo Before Colonization - Congo Imperialism. Imperialism is the ôpractice by which nations or peoples seek to extend and maintain control or influence over weaker nations or peoplesö (Imperialism 1996). Public Affairs, New York. The people captured by the Portuguese would be taken away from their people and forced to serve strangers until their death, all while the Portuguese criticized the Congo for their “uncivilized” behavior. (1884-1885) During European Imperialism, various European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. This began the process of imperializing Africa. As the modern territorial boundaries of the Democratic Republic of the Congo did not exist in … The Belgians began attempting to gain the acceptance of the Kuba in the early 1880s; however, the gifts Belgium attempted to give were always rejected and king aMbweeky aMileng threatened to behead any foreign intruders. If the leaders refused to sign the treaties, Stanley would use either trickery, threats, or brute strength to force the leaders to sign. The current territory of the Democratic Republic of Congo was occupied by humans in the Paleolithic at least 80,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the country continued to exist, at least in name, for over two centuries, until the realm was divided among Portugal, Belgium, and France at the Conference of Berlin in 1884-1885. There was a surplus of rubber that could be found in the Congo. The process in which the primitive original Upemba society transitioned into the Luba kingdom was gradual and complex. Waves of Bantu migrations from 2000 BC to 500 AD moved into the basin from the northwest and covered the precolonial states absorbed or overthrown by the colonial powers. However, conditions did not improve overnight; Belgian rule had destroyed the country’s population and social structure. Despite the obvious exploitation taking place in the Congo, world leaders still saw Leopold’s rule as a humanitarian effort. His title and name was passed to his descendants and successors as rulers of the kingdom. The Lunda kings became powerful militarily and then politically through marriage with descendants of the Luba kings. (1987): "Ishango revisited: new age determinations and cultural interpretations". Before Europe set its sights on Africa, the Congo was an independent nation relatively untouched by imperialism. The activities of the court were supported by an extensive system of civil servants, and the court itself usually consisted of numerous male relatives of the King. Through imperialism, Christianity was brought to the continent. However, Europe’s interest in the African slave trade eventually died down leaving the Congo once again independent, but even greater atrocities would soon follow. The United States was the first nation to recognize the Belgian Congo. Henry Morton Stanley was one of the first and most important European explorers in the Congo. . Under the Belgian government, conditions in the Congo slightly improved. Congo gained independence in 1960, but Belgium stilled considered Congo to be a part of the Belgian economy. The Congo didn't exist until the Europoean creation of the area for its use of the natural resources for trade. Each of these societies based the foundation of their society on that of the one which preceded it (much in the way that many aspects of Roman culture were borrowed from the Greeks). The Lunda people were able to settle and colonialize other areas and tribes, thus extending their empire through southwest Katanga into Angola and north-western Zambia, and eastwards across Katanga into what is now the Luapula Province of Zambia. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans. Its strong economy and food-base allowed the region to become extremely wealthy. At the same time, however, Álvaro had to allow the Portuguese to establish a colony in his province of Luanda in the south of his country. Before experiencing radical transformations in the colonial era, Congolese societies had already experienced major disruptions. [1][2], In 1960 the Ishango bone tool was discovered, fashioned from the fibula of a baboon with a sharp piece of quartz affixed to one end, perhaps for engraving. The federation's capital was Nsheng, which is now modern Mushenge. The Congo was always popular for slave traders to raid, and take people from. (Who might have built the 2nd one?) The slave trade in this portion of Africa was primarily Arab in nature (in contrast to the European or Atlantic Slave Trade, which took place primarily in West Africa, the Arab slave trade was located on the eastern coast of the continent), with captured persons being shipped off to the Middle East or to holdings of Arabian kingdoms for labor. The Bantu migrations added to and displaced the indigenous Pygmy populations in the southern regions of the modern Congo states. If they didn’t meet the quotas, they could be beaten, mutilated, or publicly executed. The Luba empires army was small because there weren't any really military threats. Eventually the Portuguese would gain control over most of the surrounding territory which led to increasing tensions with the Kongo. 7. The Congo was first imperialized by King Leopold II of Belgium, whose main motivation for imperialism was the Congo's vast amount of natural resources such as copper, diamonds, and coal. -The Congo was given independence from Belgium in 1960 and gained control over their own government, education and resources Negative: -Belgians destroyed the existing political structure of the country, when the Congo was given independence from Belgium the indigenous people did not have any political structure For this reason, the population of the Congo has maintained a low population in addition to an extremely low population density. As Professor Richard Evans of the University of Cambridge observes, by the 1880s “rivalries and interventions had been building up already over several decades.” The Congo Sparks Interest In 1882 a treaty was signed with local chiefs of the Congo River valley. Subsequent migrations from the Darfur and Kurdufan regions of Sudan into the north of Congo, as well as East Africans migrating into the eastern Congo, added to the mix of ethnic groups. The Congo had suffered under the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, during which the Portuguese captured residents of the Congo and sold them into slavery. The political institution of the chieftain became generally accepted and these rulers became increasingly powerful, especially at the end of the 16th century. . Activists such as E.D. The Congo was seperated into six different provinces, much like American states. The total population of all of the people living in the Congo area before colonization was estimated to be around 20 to 30 million people. [7], Once installed he conquered the neighbouring tribes and expanded the chieftainship into a kingdom, taking over the western territory of Mwata Kazembe and subjugating tribes in the southwest, on the trading route to Angola. Also, much has been made about the large number of primitive hunter-gatherer groups that inhabit the Congo, especially the Pygmy population. 2017 December - DR Congo is experiencing a "mega-crisis", with conflict having forced 1.7 million people to flee their homes during the year, aid agencies say. "Pre-colonial history of the Democratic Republic of the Congo", Learn how and when to remove this template message, A very brief history of pure mathematics: The Ishango Bone,, History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Articles needing additional references from February 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 23:25. The kingdom was also at the center of an extensive Central African trade network in which it traded and produced large quantities of ivory, as well as manufacturing copperware, raffia cloth, and pottery, along with other natural resources (The eastern region of the Congo [such as the province of Katanga] is particularly rich in mineral resources, especially diamonds). The kingdom was headed by a king known as the Manikongo, who exercised his authority over the six provinces that constituted the Kongo kingdom and the Bakongo (Kongo peoples). He wanted to make the population Christian and modern. Hierarchies changed. What has changed in Indians’ CLOTHING? The Upemba established a strong commercial demand for their metal technologies and were able to institute a long-range commercial net (the business connections extended over 1500 km, all the way to the Indian Ocean). Additionally, the region was endowed with favorable agricultural conditions and a wealth of fish and game. 1500s Atlantic slave trade impacts Kongo. This transition ran without interruption, with several distinct societies developing out of the Upemba culture prior to the genesis of the Luba. The reason for this particular life-style being so prominent in the Congo is geographical and climatic: the area is simply not capable of producing a large amount of food from agriculture, and as a result, a portion of the population has continued to hunt and gather because it is a much more sustainable way of life. The Kongo was a state located primarily in the southwest portion of the modern Congo, and also occupying portions of northern Angola and Cabinda. In addition to the six provinces, the Kongo kingdom also established a sphere of influence in a number of outlying areas from which it was able to extract tribute. This led to the displacement of the hunter-gatherer groups in the east and southeast. His nephew and immediate, Kalala Ilunga, expanded into an Empire over neighbouring states on the upper left bank territories of the Lualaba River. Before delving into a discussion of the impact of colonialism and imperialism on the Congo, it is best to define the terms in order to understand the difference between them. European powers rapidly divided Africa Period known as “Scramble for Africa” Most visible example of new imperialism New imperialism not based on settlement of colonies European powers worked to directly govern large areas occupied by Europe faced a massive surge in industry without the workers or raw materials to fuel its growth. At the same time, a Lunda chief and warrior called Mwata Kazembe set up an Eastern Lunda kingdom in the valley of the Luapula River. Prior to colonization it was run by chiefs, clans and different groups of people. At its peak, the empire had about a million people paying tribute to its king. When King Leopold II of Belgium and the British imperialist Cecil Rhodes heard that the Yeke Kingdom controlled east-west trade and was rich in copper and possibly gold, they sent competing expeditions to try to obtain a treaty for the kingdom. The 10th century marked the final expansion of the Bantu in West-Central Africa. The Congo had suffered under the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, during which the Portuguese captured residents of the Congo and sold them into slavery. He made an effort to improve the lives of his subjects in the Congo and to slowly give back control. It must also be mentioned that the climate is a major force in the Congo, which is made up primarily of tropical rainforest that sees some of the highest annual rainfall in the world. What has changed in Congo’s Society? The Congo Before Colonization. The greed for resources and Christian souls was a lesson in brutal European colonialism In this case Belgian King Leopold II. The Luba model of governing was so successful, it was adopted by the Lunda Kingdom and spread throughout Katanga and northern Angola as well as northwestern Zambia and its Luapula Province. Leopold administered the Congo in a notoriously brutal manner, using it to augment his own personal wealth. When King Álvaro I, came to the throne in an environment of contestation in 1568, he immediately had to fight invaders from the east (who some authorities believe were actually rebels within the country, either peasants or discontented nobles) called the "Jagas". Joseph A. Moloney: With Captain Stairs to Katanga. The area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was populated as early as 80,000 years ago, as shown by the 1988 discovery of the Semliki harpoon at Katanda, one of the oldest barbed harpoons ever found, and which is believed to have been used to catch giant river catfish. S. Low, Marston & Company, London, 1893. [8] The chieftainship continues to this day under the title Mwami Mwenda ('Mwenda' was one of Msiri's names).[9]. This meant new boundaries were imposed throughout Africa, dividing it into Europe's colonial domains and eliminating any governing by people in the Congo. Share. Stanley explained his motivation: “As yet the Congo basin is a blank, a fruitless waste, a desolate and unproductive area . Religion. The Luba empire was the largest and dominated most of the land. In recent weeks the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly known as Zaire, and before that the Belgian Congo, has been in the news: A brutal civil war, an horrendous AIDS epidemic, the assassination Two Inventions change the Game for the Congo! Before Imperialism Prior to the Imperialism in Africa, The Congo government was very powerful, especially between the 14th and 17th centuries. A very short overview of Belgian, and latterly US, imperialism in Congo, written by Marty Jezer in 2001. At the Battle of Ambuila in 1665, the Portuguese forces from Angola defeated the forces of king Antonio I of Kongo; Antonio was killed with many of his courtiers and the Luso-African author Manuel Roboredo, who had attempted to prevent this final war. He asked Stanley to convince local leaders in Congo to sign their land into Belgian control; Leopold was interested in Congo’s vast supply of ivory, Leopold’s soldiers enslaved Africans and moved them to labor camps, with mandatory quotas; if they didn’t meet the quotas, they were beaten, mutilated, or publicly executed, Social activist and journalist Edmond Dean Morel spoke out against violence in Congo and Leopold’s attempts to control the media; Africans in the Congo shared their stories, The new Belgian King, Albert I, stopped the forced labor camps and harsh punishments. The destruction and massive migrations forced previously distinct groups of people with their own governments to create a new forms of government. It is obvious to say that imperialism changed the religious face of Africa. The Belgian Government then gained control of the Congo from 1885-1960, until the Congo gained independence on June 30, 1960. The Bantu imported agriculture and iron-working techniques from West Africa into the area, as well as establishing the Bantu language family as the primary set of tongues for the Congolese. The motivations for King Leopold's imperialism of the Congo was the vast amount of natural resources present in the Congo such as ivory and rubber. However, the well-organized Kuba fought relentlessly against the regime and the area was one of the main sectors of resistance to Belgium throughout its rule. They developed elaborate political institutions, buttressed by symbolic … The region in which these cultures appeared is particularly rich in ore and these civilizations began to develop and implement iron and copper technology, in addition to trading in ivory and other goods. Much of the Congo Free State was located in Central Africa in a large Jungle. ... Before imperialism. As the modern territorial boundaries of the Democratic Republic of the Congo did not exist in this period, it is inseparable from the wider pre-colonial histories of Central Africa, the Great Lakes and Rift Valley as well as the Atlantic World and Swahili coast. The history of atrocities and European economic control still have a stranglehold on the Congo. The Kongo and the Kuba were the largest political entities in the precolonial Congo area. The birth of the Lunda Kingdom is traced back to Ilunga Tshibinda who left his brother's Luba Kingdom and married a princess from an area in the south of Katanga. Imperialism: European imperialism in Africa around 1900 made different European powers to divide Africa. Leopold was particularly interested in the Congo’s vast supply of ivory, and he forced native people to collect large quantities of ivory without any payment in return. Morel and Henry I. Kowalsky spoke out against the violence in the Congo and Leopold’s attempts to control the media. The Yeke Kingdom (or Garanganze Kingdom) in Katanga was short-lived, existing from about 1856 to 1891 under one king, Msiri, a Nyamwezi (also known as 'Yeke') from Tabora in Tanzania who got himself appointed as successor to a Wasanga chief west of the Luapula River by defeating the chief's Lunda enemies. [citation needed] When the Kongo Kingdom was at its political apex in the 15th and 16th centuries, the King, who had to be a male descendant of Wene, reigned supreme. Additionally, it must be mentioned that, as is this case today, the Congo River and its tributaries, as well as climatic conditions in general, play a powerful role in shaping the lives of the inhabitants of the Congo. However, there were numerous other, much smaller states scattered throughout the territory in the north and northeast, with Pygmies and other primarily hunter-gatherer populations located mostly in the southern portions of the region. It was first thought to be a tally stick, as it has a series of what has been interpreted as tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the tool, but some scientists have suggested that the groupings of the notches indicate a mathematical understanding that goes beyond counting. In his next expedition, Stanley carved his way through the country and signed over 450 treaties, which traded almost nothing for the land and which most local leaders couldn’t read. A fierce sense of nationalism encouraged countries to fight to outpace other nations’ production. The pre-colonial history of the modern-day Democratic Republic of the Congo encompasses the history of the Congo Basin region up to the establishment of European colonial rule in the era of New Imperialism and particularly the creation of the Congo Free State and its expansion into the interior after 1885. By the end of Stanley’s expeditions, Leopold now held treaties from almost all of the Congo and had European support, giving him complete control over the Congo. Africans in the Congo shared their stories and swayed even a Commission of Inquiry sent by Leopold himself to provide an inaccurate report of the situation in the Congo. Because of its relative remoteness in the southern Congo, Kuba was largely spared the turmoil of both European and Arab slave trades. King Leopold II (1835-1909) of Belgium created the Congo Free State in 1885 as part of a professed desire to bring civilization and modernity to Africans. In the 15th century, a society began to develop in the Upemba depression along the banks of the Lualaba River in Katanga. As a result, the civilization was able to maintain itself until the 19th century. The British held large sections of West Africa, the Nile Valley, and much of East and southern Africa. Although some activists witnessed the atrocities taking place in Belgium and spoke out against him, Leopold quickly silenced any opposition and continued to build goodwill with his allies.

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